woman standing with plato computer

child with computer

50 Years of Public Computing

at the University of Illinois

50 Years of Public Computing at the University of Illinois

April 15 - 16, 2010
Alice Campbell Alumni Center
601 S Lincoln Ave, Urbana IL

PLATO (1960)



  • Bartholomay, Thomas G., Control Data's PLATO computer and South Africa's apartheid education system (Trenton, NJ: Africa Research & Publications Project, 1984).
  • Bonn, George Schlegel and Sylvia Fabisoff, Changing times, changing libraries, Allerton Park Institute 22 (Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science, 1978).
  • Kovalchick, Ann and Kara Dawson, eds., Education and technology: An Encyclopedia (Oxford, UK: ABC-CLIO, 2003).
  • Mulligan, Jessica and Bridgette Patrovsky, Developing Online Games: An Insider's Guide (Indianapolis, IN: New Riders Publishing, 2003).
  • PLATO User's Guide (St. Paul, MN: Control Data Corporation, 1976).
  • PLATO User's Guide (St. Paul, MN: Control Data Corporation, 1981), http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/cdc/plato/97405900C_PLATO_Users_Guide_apr81.pdf.
  • Rheingold, Howard, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993).
  • Singh, Munindar, ed., The Practical Handbook of Internet Computing, Computer and Information Science (Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2005).
  • Wolf, Mark J. P., ed., The Video Game Explosion: A History from PONG to Playstation and Beyond (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007).

Book Chapter

  • Bizter, Donald, “The Wide World of Computer-Based Education,” in Advances in computers, 15 (New York, NY: Academic Press, 1976), 239-283.

Journal Articles

  • Alpert, Dan and Donald. L. Bitzer, “Advances in Computer-based Education”, Science 167, no. 3925, New Series (March 20, 1970): 1582-1590.
  • Angle, Terry and John Baldry, “Dynamic Custody at Work: The PLATO Computer-based Education Project at Millbrook Correctional Centre and the Ontario Correctional Institute”, Journal of Correctional Education 38, no. 3 (1987): 120-123.
  • Bitzer, Donald L., “The PLATO Project at the University of Illinois”, Engineering Education 77, no. 3 (1986): 175-180.
  • Bitzer, Donald L. and Ronald Johnson, “PLATO: A computer-based system used in the engineering of education”, Proceedings of the IEEE 56, no. 6 (1971): 960-968.
  • Denenber, Stewart A., “A personal evaluation of the PLATO system”, SIGCUE Outlook 12, no. 2 (1978): 3-10.
  • Driscoll, Francis and W. Wolf, “An analysis of strategies used to disseminate the PLATO system”, The Journal of Technology Transfer 14, no. 3 (1989):54-59.
  • Flechsig, Alfred J. and David A. Seamans, “Determining the Value of PLATO Computer-based Education for a Freshman Engineering Course”, Engineering Education 77, no. 4 (1987): 240-242.
  • Grossman, Michael and D. Walter, “Teaching Interactive Computer Capabilities (PLATO: Computer-Based Education for Animal Breeding)”, Journal of Dairy Science 61, no. 9 (1978): 1308-1311.
  • Hagler, Marion and William Marcy, “The legacy of PLATO and TICCIT for learning with computers”, Computer Applications in Engineering Education 8, no. 2 (2000): 127-131.
  • Hart, Robert, “The Illinois PLATO Foreign Languages Project”, Calico Journal 12, no. 4 (1995): 15-37.
  • Obertino, Priscilla, “The PLATO Reading Project: An Overview”, Educational Technology 14, no. 2 (1974): 8-13.
  • Okay, James and Kenneth Majer, “Individual and small-group learning with computer-assisted instruction”, Educational Technology Research and Development 24, no. 1 (1976):79-86.
  • Smith, Stan and Bruce Sherwood, “Educational Uses of the PLATO Computer System”, Science, New Series 192, no. 4237 (1976):344-352.
  • Van Meer, Elizabeth, “PLATO: From Computer-Based Education to Corporate Social Responsibility”, Iterations. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History 2 (2003), http://www.cbi.umn.edu/iterations/vanmeer.html.


  • Adcock, Katherine Ann, “A comparison of a Freshman Academy in a rural school and a Freshman Academy in a suburban school in an adjacent parish” (Ed.D. Dissertation, Monroe: University of Louisiana at Monroe, 2009).
  • Anderson, Mark Busey, “ Features of PLATO, a computer-assisted instruction learning system, that promote students' mathematics achievement: A literature review” (M.S. Dissertation, Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 2003).
  • Barnett, Thelma L., “A Comparitive Analysis of the PLATO Computer-Assisted instructional Delivery System and the Traditional Individualized Instructional Program in Two Juvenile Correctional Facilities Owned by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania” (Ed.D. Dissertation, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1985).
  • Brady, Kevin C., “ Using computers for learning: An historical study of four early programs” (Ph.D. Dissertation, Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico, 2007).
  • Dalby, Brue Foreman, “A computer-based training program for the development of harmonic intonation discrimination skill” (Ed.D. Dissertation, Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1989).
  • Driscoll, Francis D., “ The 'PLATO' system: A study in the diffusion of an innovation” (Ed.D. Dissertation, Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1988).
  • Charles Robert Necco, “An Investigation of the Feasibility of Teaching Material from an Introductory Course in Operations Research on the PLATO Computer-Based Educational System” (Ph.D. Dissertation, Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972).

Conference Proceedings

  • Bitzer, Donald et al., “The Plato System and Science Education”, in (presented at the Computer Uses in Undergaduate Science Education, Chicago, IL: Commission on College Physics, 1970).
  • Bitzer, Donald, Elisabth R. Lyman, and John A. Easley, “The Uses of PLATO: A Computer Controlled Teaching System”, H. Goldhor ed. in Proceedings of the 1966 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, (Urbana, IL: Graduate School of Library Science, 1966), 34-46.
  • Modesitt, Kenneth, “An excellent mixture for PSI: Computer science, PLATO, knowledge levels”, in Proceedings of the 1974 Anual conference, vol. 1 (presented at the ACM Annual Conference, New York, NY: ACM, 1974), 89-94.



Magazine Articles


  • Bitzer, Donald and Dominic Skaperdas, The Design of an Economically Viable Large-Scale Computer Based Education System, February 1969.
  • Bitzer, Donald and Dominic Skaperdas, PLATO IV: An economically viable large scale computer-based education system, December 1968.
  • Lyman, Elisabeth R. and Deborah S. Postlewait, CERL PLATO Lesson Catalog: Curricular and Utility Programs, Computer-Based Education Laboratory, University of Illinois, April 1980.


  • Computer-based education system. U.S. Patent 4793813.

Archives/Finding Aids

  • Charles Babbage Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Computer-based Education Research Laboratory PLATO reports, PLATO documents and CERL progress reports, http://www.cbi.umn.edu/collections/inv/cbi00133.html
  • Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, Plato Notes Files, Room 19 Library, University of Illinois Archives.

University of Illinois Urban-Champaign